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Presentation
The Postgraduate Program in Comparative History (PPGHC) was created in 2002. The concentration area of the program is Comparative History, a methodology favored by researchers such as Detienne, Pirenne, Bloch, Kocka, Veyne, Maier, among others.
The program’s main goals are: to develop historical research that adopts any perspective of comparativism; to broaden the theoretical and methodological debate over the different modes of comparisons in history, and to train experts so they can know and adopt various comparative approaches.


Research areas
The Postgraduate Program in Comparative History aims to build a space for the production of knowledge regarding social phenomena through the construction of an exercise field of comparative experimentation. In order to do so, the program was structured in two lines of investigation, namely:


Power and Institutions
This line of investigation brings together studies developed using the comparative method in its various modalities on the subject of institutions and political, economic, cultural, and social organizations, from Ancient times to the present. Some of the addressed topics include the study of governments, organs of justice, the armed forces and other military groups, political parties, religions, schools, unions, NGOs, sports associations, diplomacy, international agents and organizations, the press, among others. Since institutions and organizations are characterized often by the pursuit of monopoly and control, the research emphasis is directed towards the analysis of the structures, strategies and instruments of domination often employed by such agents. It is understood that the forms of domination include values, belief systems, symbols, rites, norms, practices, identities, knowledge, etc., which implies a close examination on the entanglement between social, cultural, ideological, economic and political spheres. This line of inquiry considers that there are different forms of domination which are not limited to specific types of institutions and organizations and, thus, are not restricted to the development of forces of coercion and violence. When facing domination, social groups and agents of all kinds are considered to respond with subversions, resistance, deviations, tactics, tensions, conflicts, which in many cases require negotiation, consent, agreement, transformism, and pacts. Thus, we are interested in studying the mechanisms of action employed by various social groups and agents as well as the many regulatory and mediating instances in which they take place. The research gathered in this line of investigation is also focus on the dis cussion of theory in a transdisciplinary perspective, establishing a close dialogue with authors such as Marx, Gramsci, Jameson, Adorno, Agamben, Foucault, Bourdieu, Thompson, among others. Concerns of this line of research therefore include the comparative analysis of the role, function and effectiveness of institutions and organizations; the different forms and instruments of domination; acts of resistance, conflict, and upheaval of social groups involved in power relations, and the negotiations, consensuses and pacts established in such contexts.

Power and Speech
This line of investigation brings together studies on everyday experiences in their various forms related to the political, economic, social, cultural and ideological aspects that affect the lives of individuals and social groups. We take as a starting point the fact that everyday life is heterogeneous in all its levels and that, at any given moment, unpredictable events might take place. For this reason, the whole theory is provisional, needing to be ratified and/or deconstructed by the subjects' daily experience, when their own expectations are put into play. Thus, developed from the comparative method in its various modalities, the studies of this line of investigation aim to elaborate a series of theoretical and methodological propositions on the ephemeral, in close di alogue with the perspectives of authors such as Thompson, Heller, Geertz, Sahlins, Ginzburg, Chartier, Arendt, among others. As everyday experiences are permeated by discourses, the studies developed in this line of inquiry are concerned with the formation, propagation, circulation and imposition of narratives in their connection with the various social processes that occur in the daily lives of societies in different periods. In other words, the studies address the occurrence of discourses in social life, from various theoretical perspectives, and they focus on the investigation of forms of alienation, status negotiation, hierarchization, social differentiation, production of hegemonies, strategies of domination, as well as the promotion of identities, exclusions, orientations, and behaviors. We also understand that, by studying how discourses affect the daily lives of societies, it is possible to hightlight the importance of modes of assent/assimilation; the various forms of resistance, upheaval, subversion, and the varied ways in which discourses circulate and are reinterpreted. Since everyday experiences provide historical processes with materiality through the vestiges left by daily practices, research in this line also seeks to analyze such testimonies of the past. Therefore, from a multidisciplinary perspective, topics such as food, religiosity, popular knowledge, rumors, gossips, popular parties, care and/or contempt for social groups, sexual and sports practices are all taken into consideration, even if they are not necessarily linked to state intervention. In this sense, we apply various theories, methods and approaches, establishing a close dialogue with different academic fields, particularly the Political Sciences, Anthropology, Sociology, Archeology, the Science of Religion, Theology, Linguistics and Literature, and we compare the results obtained in order to establish the specific contributions of History to the study of everyday experiences in accordance with the dynamics of specific societies.